top of page # Group

Public·11 members

# Learn the Basics of Electrical Engineering with Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering by Leonard S. Bobrow

## Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering by Leonard S. Bobrow

Electrical engineering is a fascinating and rewarding field of study that deals with the design, analysis, and application of electrical and electronic systems. Whether you are interested in learning more about this subject for your own curiosity, or you are pursuing a career in electrical engineering, you will find this book to be a valuable resource. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book covers, what you can learn from it, and why you should read it.

## Introduction

### What is electrical engineering?

Electrical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the generation, transmission, distribution, control, conversion, measurement, and use of electric energy. It also encompasses the study of the behavior and properties of electric charges, currents, voltages, powers, resistances, capacitances, inductances, impedances, admittances, signals, devices, circuits, fields, waves, and systems.

### Sinusoidal signals and phasors

A sinusoidal signal is a type of alternating current (AC) signal that has a sinusoidal shape and can be described by three parameters: amplitude, frequency, and phase. Amplitude is the maximum value of the signal, frequency is the number of cycles per second, and phase is the angle of the signal relative to a reference point. A phasor is a vector representation of a sinusoidal signal that shows its amplitude and phase as the magnitude and angle of the vector. Phasors can be used to simplify the analysis of AC circuits and signals by using complex numbers and algebra.

Impedance is the ratio of the voltage to the current in an AC circuit or a device. Impedance is measured in ohms (Ω), but unlike resistance, it can be a complex number that has a real part (resistance) and an imaginary part (reactance). Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance, and it is measured in siemens (S). Admittance can also be a complex number that has a real part (conductance) and an imaginary part (susceptance).

### AC power and power factor

AC power is the rate of transferring energy in an AC circuit or a device. AC power can be divided into three components: active power, reactive power, and apparent power. Active power is the average power that does useful work, and it is measured in watts (W). Reactive power is the power that oscillates between the source and the load, and it is measured in volt-amperes reactive (VAR). Apparent power is the product of the voltage and the current, and it is measured in volt-amperes (VA). Power factor is the ratio of active power to apparent power, and it indicates how efficiently an AC circuit or a device uses power. Power factor can range from 0 to 1, where 1 means perfect efficiency and 0 means no useful work.

### Resonance and filters

Resonance is a phenomenon that occurs when an AC circuit or a device operates at a frequency that matches its natural frequency. At resonance, the impedance or admittance of the circuit or device reaches its minimum or maximum value, respectively. Resonance can result in high voltages or currents, which can be useful or harmful depending on the application. Filters are devices or circuits that allow certain frequencies to pass through while blocking others. Filters can be classified into four types: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and band-stop. Filters can be used to modify or process AC signals for various purposes such as noise reduction, signal amplification, signal modulation, etc.

### Fourier series and transform

Fourier series and transform are mathematical tools that can be used to analyze periodic and non-periodic AC signals, respectively. Fourier series can represent any periodic signal as a sum of sinusoidal signals with different amplitudes, frequencies, and phases. Fourier transform can convert any non-periodic signal from the time domain to the frequency domain, where it shows how much each frequency component contributes to the signal. Fourier series and transform can help us understand the properties and behavior of AC signals better.

## Electronic Devices and Circuits

### Diodes and rectifiers

Diodes are electronic devices that allow current to flow in one direction only. Diodes have two terminals: anode and cathode. When the anode is more positive than the cathode, the diode is forward biased and conducts current. When the anode is less positive than the cathode, the diode is reverse biased and blocks current. Diodes can be used to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) by a process called rectification. Rectifiers are circuits that use diodes to perform rectification. Rectifiers can be classified into four types: half-wave, full-wave, bridge, and center-tapped.

### Transistors and amplifiers

Transistors are electronic devices that can amplify or switch electric signals. Transistors have three terminals: base, collector, and emitter. Transistors can be classified into two types: bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and field-effect transistors (FETs). BJTs use both electrons and holes as charge carriers, while FETs use only one type of charge carrier. Amplifiers are circuits that use transistors to increase the amplitude of electric signals. Amplifiers can be classified into four types: common-emitter, common-base, common-collector, and common-source.

### Operational amplifiers and feedback

Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are integrated circuits that can perform various mathematical operations on electric signals. Op-amps have two input terminals: inverting and non-inverting. Op-amps also have one output terminal and two power supply terminals. Op-amps have very high gain, very high input impedance, and very low output impedance. Feedback is a technique that connects the output of an op-amp to one of its inputs to control its gain and performance. Feedback can be positive or negative, depending on whether it increases or decreases the output signal. Feedback can also be voltage or current, depending on whether it uses voltage or current as the feedback signal.

### Digital logic gates and circuits

Digital logic gates are electronic devices that perform basic logical operations on binary signals. Binary signals have only two possible values: 0 or 1, which represent false or true, respectively. Digital logic gates have one or more input terminals and one output terminal. Digital logic gates can be classified into seven types: NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR. Digital logic circuits are circuits that use digital logic gates to perform complex logical operations on binary signals. Digital logic circuits can be classified into two types: combinational and sequential. Combinational circuits have outputs that depend only on the current inputs, while sequential circuits have outputs that depend on both the current and previous inputs.

### Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters

Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are devices that convert analog signals to digital signals. Analog signals are continuous signals that can have any value within a range, while digital signals are discrete signals that can have only a finite number of values. ADCs have one analog input terminal and one or more digital output terminals. ADCs can be classified into four types: flash, successive approximation, dual slope, and sigma-delta. Digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are devices that convert digital signals to analog signals. DACs have one or more digital input terminals and one analog output terminal. DACs can be classified into four types: weighted resistor, R-2R ladder, binary-coded decimal, and delta-sigma.

## Electromagnetic Fields and Waves

### Coulomb's law and electric field

Coulomb's law is a law that describes the force between two point charges in a vacuum. Coulomb's law states that the force is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Coulomb's law can be written as F = kq1q2/r^2, where F is the force, k is a constant, q1 and q2 are the charges, and r is the distance. Electric field is a vector field that represents the force per unit charge at any point in space due to one or more charges. Electric field can be calculated by dividing the force by the charge, or by using Gauss's law.

### Gauss's law and electric flux

Gauss's law is a law that relates the electric flux through a closed surface to the net charge enclosed by the surface. Gauss's law states that the electric flux is equal to the net charge divided by a constant. Gauss's law can be written as Φ = Q/ε0, where Φ is the electric flux, Q is the net charge, and ε0 is a constant. Electric flux is a scalar quantity that measures how much electric field passes through a given area. Electric flux can be calculated by multiplying the electric field by the area and by the cosine of the angle between them.

### Electric potential and potential energy

Electric potential is a scalar quantity that represents the work done per unit charge to move a charge from a reference point to a given point in an electric field. Electric potential is measured in volts (V), which is equal to one joule of work per coulomb of charge. Electric potential can be calculated by integrating the electric field along a path, or by using Poisson's equation. Potential energy is a scalar quantity that represents the energy stored in a system of charges due to their positions in an electric field. Potential energy is measured in joules (J), which is equal to one volt times one coulomb of charge. Potential energy can be calculated by multiplying the charge by the electric potential.

### Ampere's law and magnetic field

such as radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, and gamma rays.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have given you an overview of the book Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering by Leonard S. Bobrow. This book covers the basic concepts and principles of electrical engineering, as well as the applications of these concepts and principles to various topics such as AC circuits and signals, electronic devices and circuits, and electromagnetic fields and waves. This book is a great resource for anyone who wants to learn more about electrical engineering or pursue a career in this field. We hope you have enjoyed reading this article and found it informative and useful.

## FAQs

### Q: Who is the author of this book?

A: The author of this book is Leonard S. Bobrow, who is a professor emeritus of electrical engineering at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He has over 40 years of teaching and research experience in electrical engineering, and he has authored or co-authored several textbooks and papers on this subject.

### Q: What is the level and format of this book?

A: This book is suitable for undergraduate students who are taking an introductory course in electrical engineering or a related field. It can also be used as a reference book for graduate students or professionals who need to review the fundamentals of electrical engineering. The book is divided into four parts: Basic Concepts and Principles, AC Circuits and Signals, Electronic Devices and Circuits, and Electromagnetic Fields and Waves. Each part consists of several chapters that explain the theory and practice of each topic in detail. The book also includes appendices that provide additional information on mathematical methods, physical constants, units, symbols, etc.

### Q: What are the features and benefits of this book?

A: This book has many features and benefits that make it a valuable resource for learning electrical engineering. Some of these features and benefits are: - It covers the essential topics of electrical engineering in a clear and comprehensive manner. - It provides numerous examples, problems, exercises, and solutions to help you understand and practice what you learn. - It uses a consistent notation and terminology throughout the book to avoid confusion and ambiguity. - It incorporates modern technology and applications to illustrate the relevance and importance of electrical engineering. - It offers online resources such as lecture slides, MATLAB codes, solutions manual, etc. to enhance your learning experience.

### Q: How can I get a copy of this book?

A: You can get a copy of this book from various sources such as online retailers, bookstores, libraries, etc. You can also access an electronic version of this book from the publisher's website or other platforms that offer e-books.

### Q: How can I contact the author or the publisher of this book?

A: You can contact the author or the publisher of this book by using the following information: - Author's email: bobrow@ecs.umass.edu - Publisher's website: https://www.oxfordpresents.com/ms/bobrow/ - Publisher's address: Oxford University Press Inc., 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 - Publisher's phone: +1 800 445 9714